Since the beginning of time, species have spread and contracted their ranges.
A variety of factors including weather and climate influenced their spread and movement. Arguably, one of the most important modern factors is human influence.
As humans became more mobile, as our trade routes expanded, as our practices changed the landscape, we influenced and likely escalated species spread. For instance, the exploration of North America prompted the introduction of hogs and the reintroduction of horses.
With the passage of time and the improvement of transportation, the world has shrunk, at least metaphorically. More people criss-crossing a smaller planet for a variety of purposes created more opportunities for species to establish themselves outside their traditional ranges.
Sometimes, as with the case of rapidly spreading kudzu, someone deliberately introduced it. Kudzu, with its almost exponential growth rate, was originally touted as potential solution for erosion and a godsend for landscaping. Saltcedar choking desert waterways followed a similar path. Imported red fire ants hitched a ride on a ship and landed in Florida. The anaconda population in Florida Everglades, is thought to have originated at least in part by pet owners who tired of the big reptiles and released them into the wild.
As a whole, the species have done what successful species do—exploit and claim their niche in suitable habitat. In the absence of disease and predators, they are often unchecked.
People faced with an ecosystem that seems to be tipping out of balance have done what people do. They’ve labeled the problem, in this case “invasive species.” By its original definition, an invasive species also known as an introduced species, is a species that is not native to a specific location, and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health. The definition has expanded to include any species that has spread anywhere someone may not like it to be.
Faced with a system that appears to be out of balance, humans have identified introduced species as invasive enemies. Armed with poison, guns, traps and any other means necessary, humans have gone to war against the invaders.
In the course of waging war, the soldiers ignore the inherent difficulty in identifying what is native. For instance, the ancestors of Equus ferus (modern horses) evolved in North America and radiated to Eurasia before becoming locally extinct. In 1493, the horse returned to North America with the explorers. This equine globe hopping raises the question: Are horses native or exotic to the continent of their evolutionary ancestors?
But instead of recognizing inherent flaws in logic and approach, the soldiers, be they researchers, regulators, managers or owners, choose to apply a single, focused solution to a complicated problem. An all-out attempt to destroy the invaders only rewards big businesses that produce the “tools of war” and throws the system further out of balance.
As proponents of biodiversity, we believe that all species, even those that are new to an area, can play a role in a healthy ecosystem. The quest is discovering the benefits of the additions and managing them so they don’t overwhelm any other part of the local system.
Read more about holistic management practices
Restoring Bison at the American Prairie Reserve
Buffalo were the keystone grazing animals of the American Great Plains. At the American Prairie Reserve in Northeastern Montana, the plan is to recreate the world’s largest bison herd. NOTE: this post was origibnally […]
When Goats Become Firefighters, Not Everyone Follows Orders
The article below discusses using goat herds to reduce the frequency and intensity of wildfire. At Pitchstone Waters, we use goats every year. Their favorite food is leafy spurge – a rapidly spreading […]
Another excellent article by the Property and Environmental Research Center (PERC) the free market conservation think tank based in Bozeman. This one is about how to address people and livelihoods while achieving the essential ecological […]
Most Texas elk hunters must draw permits in Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico etc., pay many thousands of dollars and travel out of state for a chance to hunt free-ranging trophy elk. Yet, elk are native […]
As discussed in the compelling article published below, “Wild horses that are restored back into their evolutionary roles as keystone herbivores naturally protect forests, wildlife, watersheds and wilderness ecosystems, which benefit through symbiotic grazing by […]
Grand Teton Cull Ends With 58 Mt. Goats Killed, Primarily in Park’s North End
According to the article below, the National Park Service (NPS) has decided to exterminate wild mountain goats in the Teton-Yellowstone Parks because they (1) are non-native, (2) “compete” with bighorn and (3) might infect them […]
Restoration of Beaver in Arizona’s San Pedro River
Beavers are a keystone species in desert ecosystems. See how beaver restoration is healing a degraded Arizona river and its Mexican tributaries. NOTE: this post was originally published to this site on May 28, […]
This video on the restoration of elk in Kentucky and other Eastern states begins, “There is perhaps no higher calling for a wildlife conservation organization than restoring extirpated wildlife species back to their historic ranges.” […]
It Began as a Tool to Save Wild Elk. A Century Later, Feeding Threatens Iconic Herds
Here is a Washington Post article on the CWD threat from elk feeding. The paper says CWD was “identified” 50-years ago. The ‘rest of the story’ is that the “identification” occurred in a Colorado state […]
The Once-Extinct Aurochs May Soon Roam Europe Again
According to the article below, restoring large wild grazers like bison and aurochs (wild giant cattle) will enhance the health of European forests. Quoting the authors, “By disrupting forest growth, these mammals created varied […]
The Real-World Conflicts in Yellowstone Can Be Solved by Markets, Not Drama
“Founded in 1980 by a handful of outdoor-oriented economists in Bozeman, Montana, PERC—the Property and Environment Research Center—is a conservation and research institute dedicated to free market environmentalism
“Drought Busters” is an inexpensive, quick, physiologically and economically sustainable method of habitat and wildlife restoration. We call it Drought Busters because it increases effective rainfall by rebuilding soil fertility and the soil’s ability to […]
Eroded galleys can be used to restore desertifying grasslands – alongside creosote bush – without chemicals. Third in a series filmed at Circle Ranch in far-West Texas. NOTE: this post was originally published to this […]
As reported and discussed below, there is breakthrough new science on the issue of wild horses. This is big news because the assumption that wild horses and burros are “exotic” or “invasive” species has driven […]